Areas of Intervention:
Articulation is a product of speech sounds created by movements of lips, tongue and jaw, as well as the vocal cords. An articulation disorder is mispronunciation of speech sounds, such as sound substitutions, omissions, distortions (ex. lisps), and additions. This can affect a child's overall speech clarity.
Receptive language skills refer to the ability to understand and comprehend spoken language. Expressive language skills refer to the words we use to share ideas and express ourselves. Children with language delays or disorders may have difficulty with the following:
Identifying objects and pictures
Understanding a story
Making comments and asking questions
Receptive and expressive language disorders may be developmental or acquired as a result of a brain injury.
Stuttering affects the fluency or the "flow" of our speech. It typically begins during childhood and can persist throughout a person's life. People who stutter may get stuck on certain words or sounds. They may feel tense of uncomfortable when talking to other, and may change words to avoid stuttering. Disfluencies can include:
Repetitions of sounds, words or sentences
Blocks or stops
Prolongation of sounds
Social communication refers to the verbal and non-verbal skills, social interaction, pragmatics and social cognition skills needed for effective communication in variety of social contexts. Social communication skills include the ability to vary speech style, take the perspective of other, understand and appropriate use the rules for verbal and non-verbal communication as well as using the structural aspects of language (ex. vocabulary, syntax, phonology) to accomplish these goals.
Social communication disorder may be a distinct diagnosis or may co-occur with other conditions, such as intellectual disability, developmental disabilities, learning disabilities, language disorders, ADHD, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), etc.
Reading and Writing
Literacy skills are the ability to read and write or use language proficiently. Children learn essential skills before they can be able to read and write. These skills include but aren’t limited to: book awareness, phonological awareness, letter-sound correspondence, decoding (sounding words out) and sight word recognition. These skills pave the way for children’s ability to read and write (learn in general).
If a child takes longer than expected to learn these skills, he/she may be said to be experiencing a literacy delays/disorders (ex. dyslexia, dysorthographia, etc.). A learning disability is diagnosed by a psychologist following a comprehensive psychoeducational assessment. Speech-Language Pathologists can identify your child's areas of difficulty and provide evidence-based intervention and strategies to improve and remediate a child's literacy skills. Working with your child's school team is important to ensure carryover and generalization.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and social interaction and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. Children diagnosed with ASD may present with the following difficulties:
Verbal and non-verbal skills (gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, emotions)
Changes in routine
Sensitivity to sensory input
Oral-motor skills refer to our ability to control our lips, tongue and jaw muscles which we require to talk, eat, sipping from a straw, etc. Some oral-motor disorders have a neurological component. For example, a child diagnosed with "Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)" will have trouble moving and coordinating different parts of their mouths in order to form words.